SOLAS Regulations | Chapter II-1 | Part D - Electrical installations


SOLAS-Part D - Electrical installations.

SOLAS - International Convention for the Safety of Life at Sea

Chapter II-1 - Construction - Structure, subdivision and stability, machinery, and electrical installations.

Part D - Electrical installations.


REGULATION
DESCRIPTION
40
General
41
Main source of electrical power and lighting systems
42
Emergency source of electrical power in passenger ships
42-1
Supplementary emergency lighting for RO-RO passenger ships
43
Emergency source of electrical power in cargo ships
44
Starting arrangements for emergency generating sets
45
Precautions against shock, fire and other hazards of electrical origin (Paragraphs 10 and 11 of this regulation apply to ships constructed on or after 1 January 2007)



    Regulation 40 - General


    1. Electrical installations shall be such that:


    1.1. All electrical auxiliary services necessary for maintaining the ship in normal operational and habitable conditions will be ensured without recourse to the emergency source of electrical power;


    1.2. Electrical services essential for safety will be ensured under various emergency conditions; and


    1.3. The safety of passengers, crew, and ship from electrical hazards will be ensured.


    2. The Administration shall take appropriate steps to ensure uniformity in the implementation and application of the provisions of this part in respect of electrical installations. See footnote


    Footnote

    Refer to the recommendations published by the International Electro technical Commission and, in particular, Publication IEC 60092 - Electrical Installations in Ships.

    Regulation 41 - Main source of electrical power and lighting systems



    1.1. The main source of electrical power of sufficient capacity to supply all those services mentioned in regulation 40.1.1 shall be provided. This main source of electrical power shall consist of at least two generating sets.


    1.2. The capacity of these generating sets shall be such that in the event of anyone generating set being stopped it will still be possible to supply those services necessary to provide normal operational conditions of propulsion and safety. Minimum comfortable conditions of habitability shall also be ensured which include at least adequate services for cooking, heating, domestic refrigeration, mechanical ventilation, sanitary and freshwater.


    1.3. The arrangements of the ship’s main source of electrical power shall be such that the services referred to in regulation 40.1.1 can be maintained regardless of the speed and direction of rotation of the propulsion machinery or shafting.


    1.4. In addition, the generating sets shall be such as to ensure that with anyone generator or its primary source of power out of operation, the remaining generating sets shall be capable of providing the electrical services necessary to start the main propulsion plant from a dead ship condition. The emergency source of electrical power may be used for the purpose of starting from a dead ship condition if its capability either alone or combined with that of any other source of electrical power is sufficient to provide at the same time those services required to be supplied by regulations 42.2.1 to 42.2.3 or 43.2.1 to 43.2.4.


    1.5. Where transformers constitute an essential part of the electrical supply system required by this paragraph, the system shall be so arranged as to ensure the same continuity of the supply as is stated in this paragraph.


    2.1. A main electric lighting system that shall provide illumination throughout those parts of the ship normally accessible to and used by passengers or crew shall be supplied from the main source of electrical power.


    2.2. The arrangement of the main electric lighting system shall be such that a fire or other casualty in spaces containing the main source of electrical power, associated transforming equipment, if any, the main switchboard and the main lighting switchboard, will not render the emergency electric lighting system required by regulations 42.2.1 and 42.2.2 or 43.2.1, 43.2.2 and 43.2.3 inoperative.


    2.3. The arrangement of the emergency electric lighting system shall be such that a fire or other casualty in spaces containing the emergency source of electrical power, associated transforming equipment, if any, the emergency switchboard and the emergency lighting switchboard will not render the main electric lighting system required by this regulation inoperative.


    3. The main switchboard shall be so placed relative to one main generating station that, as far as is practicable, the integrity of the normal electrical supply may be effected only by a fire or other casualties in one space. An environmental enclosure for the main switchboard, such as may be provided by a machinery control room situated within the main boundaries of the space, is not to be considered as separate the switchboards from the generators.


    4. Where the total installed electrical power of the main generating sets is in excess of 3 MW, the main busbar shall be subdivided into at least two parts which shall normally be connected by removable links or other approved means; so far as is practicable, the connection of generating sets and any other duplicated equipment shall be equally divided between the parts. Equivalent arrangements may be permitted to the satisfaction of the Administration.


    5. Ships constructed on or after 1 July 1998:   
                                                               

    5.1. In addition to paragraphs 1, 2 and 3, shall comply with the following:


    5.1.1. where the main source of electrical power is necessary for propulsion and steering of the ship, the system shall be so arranged that the electrical supply to equipment necessary for propulsion and steering and to ensure the safety of the ship will be maintained or immediately restored in the case of loss of any one of the generators in service;


    5.1.2. Load shedding or other equivalents arrangements shall be provided to protect the generators required by this regulation against sustained overload;


    5.1.3. where the main source of electrical power is necessary for the propulsion of the ship, the main busbar shall be subdivided into at least two parts which shall normally be connected by circuit breakers or other approved means; so far as is practicable, the connection of generating sets and other duplicated equipment shall be equally divided between the parts; and


    5.2. Need not comply with paragraph 4.


    6. In passenger ships constructed on or after 1 July 2010, supplementary lighting shall be provided in all cabins to clearly indicate the exit so that occupants will be able to find their way to the door. Such lighting, which may be connected to an emergency source of power or have a self-contained source of electrical power in each cabin, shall automatically illuminate when power to the normal cabin lighting is lost and remain on for a minimum of 30 min. 

    Regulation 42 - Emergency source of electrical power in passenger ships



    (Paragraphs 2.6.1 and 4.2 of this regulation apply to ships constructed on or after 1 February 1992)


    1.1. A self-contained emergency source of electrical power shall be provided.


    1.2. The emergency source of electrical power, associated transforming equipment, if any, transitional source of emergency power, an emergency switchboard, and emergency lighting switchboard shall be located above the uppermost continuous deck and shall be readily accessible from the open deck. They shall not be located forward of the collision bulkhead.


    1.3. The location of the emergency source of electrical power and associated transforming equipment, if any, the transitional source of emergency power, the emergency switchboard, and the emergency electric lighting switchboards in relation to the main source of electrical power, associated transforming equipment, if any, and the main switchboard shall be such as to ensure to the satisfaction of the Administration that a fire or other casualty in spaces containing the main source of electrical power, associated transforming equipment, if any, and the main switchboard or in any machinery space of category A will not interfere with the supply, control, and distribution of emergency electrical power. As far as practicable, the space containing the emergency source of electrical power, associated transforming equipment, if any, the transitional source of emergency electrical power and the emergency switchboard shall not be contiguous to the boundaries of machinery spaces of category A or those spaces containing the main source of electrical power, associated transforming equipment, if any, or the main switchboard.


    1.4. Provided that suitable measures are taken for safeguarding independent emergency operation under all circumstances, the emergency generator may be used exceptionally, and for short periods, to supply non-emergency circuits.


    2. The electrical power available shall be sufficient to supply all those services that are essential for safety in an emergency, due regard being paid to such services as may have to be operated simultaneously. The emergency source of electrical power shall be capable, having regard to starting currents and the transitory nature of certain loads, of supplying simultaneously at least the following services for the periods specified hereinafter, if they depend upon an electrical source for their operation:


    2.1. For a period of 36 h, emergency lighting:


    2.1.1. at every muster and embarkation station and over the sides as required by regulations III/11.4 and III/16.7;


    2.1.2. In alleyways, stairways and exits giving access to the muster and embarkation stations, as required by regulation III/11.5;


    2.1.3. In all service and accommodation alleyways, stairways and exits, personnel lift cars;


    2.1.4. in the machinery spaces and main generating stations including their control positions;


    2.1.5. in all control stations, machinery control rooms, and at each main and emergency switchboard;


    2.1.6. At all stowage positions for firemen’s outfits;


    2.1.7. At the steering gear; and


    2.1.8. At the fire pump, the sprinkler pump, and the emergency bilge pump referred to in paragraph 2.4 and at the starting position of their motors.


    2.2. For a period of 36 h:


    2.2.1. The navigation lights and other lights required by the International Regulations for Preventing Collisions at Sea in force; and


    2.2.2. on ships constructed on or after 1 February 1995, the VHF radio installation required by regulation IV/7.1.1 and IV/7.1.2; and, if applicable:


    2.2.2.1. The MF radio installation required by regulations IV/9.1.1, IV/9.1.2, IV/10.1.2, and IV/10.1.3;


    2.2.2.2. The ship earth station required by regulation IV/10.1.1; and


    2.2.2.3. The MF/HF radio installation required by regulations IV/10.2.1, IV/10.2.2, and IV/11.1.


    2.3. For a period of 36 h:


    2.3.1. All internal communication equipment required in an emergency;


    2.3.2. The ship borne navigational equipment as required by regulation V/12; where such provision is unreasonable or impracticable the Administration may waive this requirement for ships of less than 5,000 gross tonnages;


    2.3.3. The fire detection and fire alarm system, and the fire door holding and release system; and


    2.3.4. For intermittent operation of the daylight signalling lamp, the ship’s whistle, the manually operated call points, and all internal signals that are required in an emergency;

    Unless such services have an independent supply for a period of 36 h from an accumulator battery suitably located for use in an emergency.


    2.4. For a period of 36 h:


    2.4.1. One of the fire pumps required by regulation II-2/4.3.1 and 4.3.3;

    2.4.2. The automatic sprinkler pump, if any; and


    2.4.3. The emergency bilge pump and all the equipment essential for the operation of electrically powered remote controlled bilge valves.


    2.5. For the period of time required by regulation 29.14 the steering gear if required to be so supplied by that regulation.


    2.6. For a period of half an hour:


    2.6.1. Any watertight doors required by regulation 15 (now II-1/13) to be power-operated together with their indicators and warning signals;


    2.6.2. The emergency arrangements to bring the lift cars to the deck level for the escape of persons. The passenger lift cars may be brought to the deck level sequentially in an emergency.


    2.7. In a ship engaged regularly on voyages of short duration, the Administration if satisfied that an adequate standard of safety would be attained may accept a lesser period than the 36 h period specified in paragraphs 2.1 to 2.5 but not less than 12 h.


    3. The emergency source of electrical power may be either a generator or an accumulator battery, which shall comply with the following:


    3.1. Where the emergency source of electrical power is a generator, it shall be:


    3.1.1. Driven by a suitable prime mover with an independent supply of fuel having a flashpoint (closed cup test) of not less than 43°C;


    3.1.2. started automatically upon failure of the electrical supply from the main source of electrical power and shall be automatically connected to the emergency switchboard; those services referred to in paragraph 4 shall then be transferred automatically to the emergency generating set. The automatic starting system and the characteristic of the prime mover shall be such as to permit the emergency generator to carry its full rated load as quickly as is safe and practicable, subject to a maximum of 45 s; unless a second independent means of starting the emergency generating set is provided, the single source of stored energy shall be protected to preclude its complete depletion by the automatic starting system; and


    3.1.3. Provided with a transitional source of emergency electrical power according to paragraph 4.


    3.2. Where the emergency source of electrical power is an accumulator battery, it shall be capable of:


    3.2.1. carrying the emergency electrical load without recharging while maintaining the voltage of the battery throughout the discharge period within 12% above or below its nominal voltage;


    3.2.2. Automatically connecting to the emergency switchboard in the event of failure of the main source of electrical power; and


    3.2.3. Immediately supplying at least those services specified in paragraph 4.


    3.3. The following provisions in paragraph 3.1.2 shall not apply to ships constructed on or after 1 October 1994:

    Unless a second independent means of starting the emergency generating set is provided, the single source of stored energy shall be protected to preclude its complete depletion by the automatic starting system.


    3.4. For ships constructed on or after 1 July 1998, where electrical power is necessary to restore propulsion, the capacity shall be sufficient to restore propulsion to the ship in conjunction with other machinery, as appropriate, from a dead ship condition within 30 min after the blackout.


    4. The transitional source of emergency electrical power required by paragraph 3.1.3 shall consist of an accumulator battery suitably located for use in an emergency which shall operate without recharging while maintaining the voltage of the battery throughout the discharge period within 12% above or below its nominal voltage and be of sufficient capacity and so arranged as to supply automatically in the event of failure of either the main or emergency source of electrical power at least the following services if they depend upon an electrical source for their operation:


    4.1. For half an hour:


    4.1.1. The lighting required by paragraphs 2.1 and 2.2;


    4.1.2. All services required by paragraphs 2.3.1, 2.3.3 and 2.3.4 unless such services have an independent supply for the period specified from an accumulator battery suitably located for use in an emergency.


    4.2. Power to operate the watertight doors, as required by regulation 15.7.3.3 (now II-1/13), but not necessarily all of them simultaneously unless an independent temporary source of stored energy is provided. Power to the control, indication, and alarm circuits as required by regulation 15.7.2 (now II-1/13) for half an hour.


    5.1. The emergency switchboard shall be installed as near as is practicable to the emergency source of electrical power.


    5.2. Where the emergency source of electrical power is a generator, the emergency switchboard shall be located in the same space unless the operation of the emergency switchboard would thereby be impaired.


    5.3. No accumulator battery fitted in accordance with this regulation shall be installed in the same space as the emergency switchboard. An indicator shall be mounted in a suitable place on the main switchboard or in the machinery control room to indicate when the batteries constituting either the emergency source of electrical power or the transitional source of emergency electrical power referred to in paragraph 3.1.3 or 3.1.4 are being discharged.


    5.4. The emergency switchboard shall be supplied during normal operation from the main switchboard by an interconnector feeder which is to be adequately protected at the main switchboard against overload and short circuit and which is to be disconnected automatically at the emergency switchboard upon failure of the main source of electrical power. Where the system is arranged for feedback operation, the interconnector feeder is also to be protected at the emergency switchboard at least against a short circuit.


    5.5. In order to ensure ready availability of the emergency source of electrical power, arrangements shall be made where necessary to disconnect automatically non-emergency circuits from the emergency switchboard to ensure that power shall be available to the emergency circuits.


    6. The emergency generator and its prime mover and any emergency accumulator battery shall be so designed and arranged as to ensure that they will function at full rated power when the ship is upright and when inclined at any angle of list up to 22.5° or when inclined up to 10° either in the fore or aft direction or is in any combination of angles within those limits.




    7. Provision shall be made for the periodic testing of the complete emergency system and shall include the testing of automatic starting arrangements. 

    Regulation 42-1 - Supplementary emergency lighting for RO-RO passenger ships


    (This regulation applies to all passenger ships with RO-RO cargo spaces or special category spaces as defined in regulation II-2/3, except that for ships constructed before 22 October 1989, this regulation shall apply not later than 22 October 1990)

    42.1.1 In addition to the emergency lighting required by regulation 42.2, on every passenger ship with RO-RO cargo spaces or special category spaces as defined in regulation II-2/3:

    1.1 All passenger public spaces and alleyways shall be provided with supplementary electric lighting that can operate for at least 3 h when all other sources of electrical power have failed and under any condition of heel. The illumination provided shall be such that the approach to the means of escape can be readily seen. The source of power for the supplementary lighting shall consist of accumulator batteries located within the lighting units that are continuously charged, where practicable, from the emergency switchboard. Alternatively, any other means of lighting which is at least as effective may be accepted by the Administration. The supplementary lighting shall be such that any failure of the lamp will be immediately apparent. Any accumulator battery provided shall be replaced at intervals having regard to the specified service life in the ambient conditions that they are subject to in service; and

    1.2 a portable rechargeable battery operated lamp shall be provided in every crew space alleyway, recreational space and every working space which is normally occupied unless supplementary emergency lighting, as required by subparagraph .1, is provided.

    Regulation 43 - Emergency source of electrical power in cargo ships


    1.1 A self-contained emergency source of electrical power shall be provided.

    1.2 The emergency source of electrical power, associated transforming equipment, if any, transitional source of emergency power, emergency switchboard and emergency lighting switchboard shall be located above the uppermost continuous deck and shall be readily accessible from the open deck. They shall not be located forward of the collision bulkhead, except where permitted by the Administration in exceptional circumstances.

    1.3 The location of the emergency source of electrical power, associated transforming equipment, if any, the transitional source of emergency power, the emergency switchboard and the emergency lighting switchboard in relation to the main source of electrical power, associated transforming equipment, if any, and the main switchboard shall be such as to ensure to the satisfaction of the Administration that a fire or other casualty in the space containing the main source of electrical power, associated transforming equipment, if any, and the main switchboard, or in any machinery space of category A will not interfere with the supply, control and distribution of emergency electrical power. As far as practicable the space containing the emergency source of electrical power, associated transforming equipment, if any, the transitional source of emergency electrical power and the emergency switchboard shall not be contiguous to the boundaries of machinery spaces of category A or those spaces containing the main source of electrical power, associated transforming equipment, if any, and the main switchboard.

    1.4 Provided that suitable measures are taken for safeguarding independent emergency operation under all circumstances, the emergency generator may be used, exceptionally, and for short periods, to supply non-emergency circuits.

    2 The electrical power available shall be sufficient to supply all those services that are essential for safety in an emergency, due regard being paid to such services as may have to be operated simultaneously. The emergency source of electrical power shall be capable, having regard to starting currents and the transitory nature of certain loads, of supplying simultaneously at least the following services for the periods specified hereinafter, if they depend upon an electrical source for their operation:

    2.1 For a period of 3 h, emergency lighting at every muster and embarkation station and over the sides as required by regulations III/11.4 and III/16.7.

    2.2 For a period of 18 h, emergency lighting:

    2.2.1 In all service and accommodation alleyways, stairways and exits, personnel lift cars and personnel lift trunks;

    2.2.2 in the machinery spaces and main generating stations including their control positions;

    2.2.3 in all control stations, machinery control rooms, and at each main and emergency switchboard;

    2.2.4 At all stowage positions for firemen's outfits;

    2.2.5 at the steering gear;

    2.2.6 at the fire pump referred to in paragraph 2.5, at the sprinkler pump, if any, and at the emergency bilge pump, if any, and at the starting positions of their motors; and

    2.2.7 In all cargo pump-rooms of tankers constructed on or after 1 July 2002

    2.3 For a period of 18 h:

    2.3.1 The navigation lights and other lights required by the International Regulations for Preventing Collisions at Sea in force;

    2.3.2 on ships constructed on or after 1 February 1995 the VHF radio installation required by regulation IV/7.1.1 and IV/7.1.2; and, if applicable:

    2.3.2.1 The MF radio installation required by regulations IV/9.1.1, IV/9.1.2, IV/10.1.2 and IV/10.1.3;

    2.3.2.2 The ship earth station required by regulation IV/10.1.1; and

    2.3.2.3 The MF/HF radio installation required by regulations IV/10.2.1, IV/10.2.2 and IV/11.1.

    2.4 For a period of 18 h:

    2.4.1 All internal communication equipment as required in an emergency;

    2.4.2 The ship borne navigational equipment as required by regulation V/12 footnote; where such provision is unreasonable or impracticable the Administration may waive this requirement for ships of less than 5,000 gross tonnage;

    2.4.3 The fire detection and fire alarm system; and

    2.4.4 intermittent operation of the daylight signalling lamp, the ship's whistle, the manually operated call points and all internal signals that are required in an emergency;
    Unless such services have an independent supply for the period of 18 h from an accumulator battery suitably located for use in an emergency.

    2.5 For a period of 18 h one of the fire pumps required by regulation II-2/4.3.1 and 4.3.3 footnote if dependent upon the emergency generator for its source of power.

    2.6.1 for the period of time required by regulation 29.14 the steering gear where it is required to be so supplied by that regulation.

    2.6.2 In a ship engaged regularly in voyages of short duration, the Administration if satisfied that an adequate standard of safety would be attained may accept a lesser period than the 18 h period specified in paragraphs 2.2 to 
    2.5 but not less than 12 h.

    3 The emergency source of electrical power may be either a generator or an accumulator battery, which shall comply with the following:

    3.1 Where the emergency source of electrical power is a generator, it shall be:

    3.1.1 Driven by a suitable prime mover with an independent supply of fuel, having a flashpoint (closed cup test) of not less than 43°C;

    3.1.2 started automatically upon failure of the main source of electrical power supply unless a transitional source of emergency electrical power in accordance with paragraph 3.1.3 is provided; where the emergency generator is automatically started, it shall be automatically connected to the emergency switchboard; those services referred to in paragraph 4 shall then be connected automatically to the emergency generator; and unless a second independent means of starting the emergency generator is provided the single source of stored energy shall be protected to preclude its complete depletion by the automatic starting system; and

    3.1.3 Provided with a transitional source of emergency electrical power as specified in paragraph 4 unless an emergency generator is provided capable both of supplying the services mentioned in that paragraph and of being automatically started and supplying the required load as quickly as is safe and practicable subject to a maximum of 45 s.

    3.2 Where the emergency source of electrical power is an accumulator battery it shall be capable of:

    3.2.1 carrying the emergency electrical load without recharging while maintaining the voltage of the battery throughout the discharge period within 12% above or below its nominal voltage;

    3.2.2 Automatically connecting to the emergency switchboard in the event of failure of the main source of electrical power; and

    3.2.3 Immediately supplying at least those services specified in paragraph 4.

    3.3 The following provision in paragraph 3.1.2 shall not apply to ships constructed on or after 1 October 1994:
    Unless a second independent means of starting the emergency generating set is provided, the single source of stored energy shall be protected to preclude its complete depletion by the automatic starting system.

    3.4 For ships constructed on or after 1 July 1998, where electrical power is necessary to restore propulsion, the capacity shall be sufficient to restore propulsion to the ship in conjunction with other machinery, as appropriate, from a dead ship condition within 30 min after blackout.

    4 The transitional source of emergency electrical power where required by paragraph 3.1.3 shall consist of an accumulator battery suitably located for use in an emergency which shall operate without recharging while maintaining the voltage of the battery throughout the discharge period within 12% above or below its nominal voltage and be of sufficient capacity and shall be so arranged as to supply automatically in the event of failure of either the main or the emergency source of electrical power for half an hour at least the following services if they depend upon an electrical source for their operation:

    4.1 The lighting required by paragraphs 2.1, 2.2 and 2.3.1. For this transitional phase, the required emergency electric lighting, in respect of the machinery space and accommodation and service spaces may be provided by permanently fixed, individual, automatically charged, relay operated accumulator lamps; and

    4.2 All services required by paragraphs 2.4.1, 2.4.3 and 2.4.4 unless such services have an independent supply for the period specified from an accumulator battery suitably located for use in an emergency.

    5.1 The emergency switchboard shall be installed as near as is practicable to the emergency source of electrical power.

    5.2 Where the emergency source of electrical power is a generator, the emergency switchboard shall be located in the same space unless the operation of the emergency switchboard would thereby be impaired.

    5.3 No accumulator battery fitted in accordance with this regulation shall be installed in the same space as the emergency switchboard. An indicator shall be mounted in a suitable place on the main switchboard or in the machinery control room to indicate when the batteries constituting either the emergency source of electrical power or the transitional source of electrical power referred to in paragraph 3.2 or 4 are being discharged.

    5.4 The emergency switchboard shall be supplied during normal operation from the main switchboard by an interconnector feeder which is to be adequately protected at the main switchboard against overload and short circuit and which is to be disconnected automatically at the emergency switchboard upon failure of the main source of electrical power. Where the system is arranged for feedback operation, the interconnector feeder is also to be protected at the emergency switchboard at least against short circuit.

    5.5 In order to ensure ready availability of the emergency source of electrical power, arrangements shall be made where necessary to disconnect automatically non-emergency circuits from the emergency switchboard to ensure that electrical power shall be available automatically to the emergency circuits.

    6 The emergency generator and its prime mover and any emergency accumulator battery shall be so designed and arranged as to ensure that they will function at full rated power when the ship is upright and when inclined at any angle of list up to 22.5° or when inclined up to 10° either in the fore or aft direction, or is in any combination of angles within those limits.

    7 Provision shall be made for the periodic testing of the complete emergency system and shall include the testing of automatic starting arrangements.

    Regulation 44 - Starting arrangements for emergency generating sets


    1 Emergency generating sets shall be capable of being readily started in their cold condition at a temperature of 0°C. If this is impracticable, or if lower temperatures are likely to be encountered, provision acceptable to the Administration shall be made for the maintenance of heating arrangements, to ensure ready starting of the generating sets.

    2 Each emergency generating set arranged to be automatically started shall be equipped with starting devices approved by the Administration with a stored energy capability of at least three consecutive starts. A second source of energy shall be provided for an additional three starts within 30 min unless manual starting can be demonstrated to be effective.

    2.1 Ships constructed on or after 1 October 1994, in lieu of the provision of the second sentence of paragraph 2, shall comply with the following requirements:
    The source of stored energy shall be protected to preclude critical depletion by the automatic starting system, unless a second independent means of starting is provided. In addition, a second source of energy shall be provided for an additional three starts within 30 min unless manual starting can be demonstrated to be effective.

    3 The stored energy shall be maintained at all times, as follows:

    3.1 electrical and hydraulic starting systems shall be maintained from the emergency switchboard;

    3.2 compressed air starting systems may be maintained by the main or auxiliary compressed air receivers through a suitable non-return valve or by an emergency air compressor which, if electrically driven, is supplied from the emergency switchboard;

    3.3 all of these starting, charging and energy storing devices shall be located in the emergency generator space; these devices are not to be used for any purpose other than the operation of the emergency generating set. This does not preclude the supply to the air receiver of the emergency generating set from the main or auxiliary compressed air system through the non-return valve fitted in the emergency generator space.

    4.1 Where automatic starting is not required, manual starting is permissible, such as manual cranking, inertia starters, manually charged hydraulic accumulators, or powder charge cartridges, where they can be demonstrated as being effective.

    4.2 When manual starting is not practicable, the requirements of paragraphs 2 and 3 shall be complied with except that starting may be manually initiated.

    Regulation 45 - Precautions against shock, fire and other hazards of electrical origin


    (Paragraphs 10 and 11 of this regulation apply to ships constructed on or after 1 January 2007)

    1.1 Exposed metal parts of electrical machines or equipment which are not intended to be live but which are liable under fault conditions to become live shall be earthed unless the machines or equipment are:

    1.1.1 supplied at a voltage not exceeding 50 V direct current or 50 V root mean square between conductors; auto-transformers shall not be used for the purpose of achieving this voltage; or

    1.1.2 Supplied at a voltage not exceeding 250 V by safety isolating transformers supplying only one consuming device; or

    1.1.3 Constructed in accordance with the principle of double insulation.

    1.2 The Administration may require additional precautions for portable electrical equipment for use in confined or exceptionally damp spaces where particular risks due to conductivity may exist.

    1.3 All electrical apparatus shall be so constructed and so installed as not to cause injury when handled or touched in the normal manner.

    2 Main and emergency switchboards shall be so arranged as to give easy access as may be needed to apparatus and equipment, without danger to personnel. The sides and the rear and, where necessary, the front of switchboards shall be suitably guarded. Exposed live parts having voltages to earth exceeding a voltage to be specified by the Administration shall not be installed on the front of such switchboards. Where necessary, no conducting mats or gratings shall be provided at the front and rear of the switchboard.

    3.1 The hull return system of distribution shall not be used for any purpose in a tanker, or for power, heating, or lighting in any other ship of 1,600 gross tonnage and upwards.

    3.2 The requirement of paragraph 3.1 does not preclude under conditions approved by the Administration the use of:

    3.2.1 impressed current cathodic protective systems;

    3.2.2 Limited and locally earthed systems; or

    3.2.3 Insulation level monitoring devices provided the circulation current does not exceed 30 mA under the most unfavourable conditions.

    3.2-1 For ships constructed on or after 1 October 1994, the requirement of paragraph 3.1 does not preclude the use of limited and locally earthed systems, provided that any possible resulting current does not flow directly through any dangerous spaces.

    3.3 Where the hull return system is used, all final sub circuits, i.e. all circuits fitted after the last protective device, shall be two-wire and special precautions shall be taken to the satisfaction of the Administration.

    4.1 Earthed distribution systems shall not be used in a tanker. The Administration may exceptionally permit in a tanker the earthing of the neutral for alternating current power networks of 3,000 V (line to line) and over, provided that any possible resulting current does not flow directly through any of the dangerous spaces.

    4.2 When a distribution system, whether primary or secondary, for power, heating or lighting, with no connection to earth is used, a device capable of continuously monitoring the insulation level to earth and of giving an audible or visual indication of abnormally low insulation values shall be provided.

    4.3 Ships constructed on or after 1 October 1994, in lieu of the provisions of paragraph 4.1, shall comply with the following requirements:

    4.3.1 Except as permitted by paragraph 4.3.2 earthed distribution systems shall not be used in a tanker.

    4.3.2 The requirement of paragraph 4.3.1 does not preclude the use of earthed intrinsically safe circuits and in addition, under conditions approved by the Administration, the use of the following earthed systems:

    4.3.2.1 power-supplied control circuits and instrumentation circuits where technical or safety reasons preclude the use of a system with no connection to earth, provided the current in the hull is limited to not more than 5 A in both normal and fault conditions; or

    4.3.2.2 Limited and locally earthed systems, provided that any possible resulting current does not flow directly through any of the dangerous spaces; or

    4.3.2.3 Alternating current power networks of 1,000 V root mean square (line to line) and over, provided that any possible resulting current does not flow directly through any of the dangerous spaces.

    5.1 Except as permitted by the Administration in exceptional circumstances, all 
    metal sheaths and armour of cables shall be electrically continuous and shall be earthed.

    5.2 All electric cables and wiring external to equipment shall be at least of a flame-retardant type and shall be so installed as not to impair their original flame-retarding properties. Where necessary for particular applications the Administration may permit the use of special types of cables such as radio frequency cables, which do not comply with the foregoing.

    5.3 Cables and wiring serving essential or emergency power, lighting, internal communications or signals shall so far as practicable be routed clear of galleys, laundries, machinery spaces of category A and their casings and other high fire risk areas. In RO-RO passenger ships, cabling for emergency alarms and public address systems installed on or after 1 July 1998 shall be approved by the Administration having regard to the recommendations developed by the Organization. Cables connecting fire pumps to the emergency switchboard shall be of a fire-resistant type where they pass through high fire risk areas. Where practicable all such cables should be run in such a manner as to preclude their being rendered unserviceable by heating of the bulkheads that may be caused by a fire in an adjacent space.

    5.4 Where cables which are installed in hazardous areas introduce the risk of fire or explosion in the event of an electrical fault in such areas, special precautions against such risks shall be taken to the satisfaction of the Administration.

    5.5 Cables and wiring shall be installed and supported in such a manner as to avoid chafing or other damage.

    5.6 Terminations and joints in all conductors shall be so made as to retain the original electrical, mechanical, flame-retarding and, where necessary, fire-resisting properties of the cable.

    6.1 Each separate circuit shall be protected against short circuit and against overload, except as permitted in regulations 29 and 30 or where the Administration may exceptionally otherwise permit.

    6.2 The rating or appropriate setting of the overload protective device for each circuit shall be permanently indicated at the location of the protective device.

    7 Lighting fittings shall be so arranged as to prevent temperature rises which could damage the cables and wiring, and to prevent surrounding material from becoming excessively hot.

    8 All lighting and power circuits terminating in a bunker or cargo space shall be provided with a multiple-pole switch outside the space for disconnecting such circuits.

    9.1 Accumulator batteries shall be suitably housed, and compartments used primarily for their accommodation shall be properly constructed and efficiently ventilated.

    9.2 Electrical or other equipment which may constitute a source of ignition of flammable vapours shall not be permitted in these compartments except as permitted in paragraph 10.

    9.3 Accumulator batteries shall not be located in sleeping quarters except where hermetically sealed to the satisfaction of the Administration.

    10 No electrical equipment shall be installed in any space where flammable mixtures are liable to collect, e.g. in compartments assigned principally to accumulator batteries, in paint lockers, acetylene stores or similar spaces, unless the Administration is satisfied that such equipment is:

    10.1 Essential for operational purposes;

    10.2 of a type which will not ignite the mixture concerned;

    10.3 Appropriate to the space concerned; and

    10.4 appropriately certified for safe usage in the dusts, vapours or gases likely to be encountered.

    11 In tankers, electrical equipment, cables and wiring shall not be installed in hazardous locations unless it conforms with standards not inferior to those acceptable to the Organization. However, for locations not covered by such standards, electrical equipment, cables and wiring which do not conform to the standards may be installed in hazardous locations based on a risk assessment to the satisfaction of the Administration, to ensure that an equivalent level of safety is assured.

    12 In a passenger ship, distribution systems shall be so arranged that fire in any main vertical zone as is defined in regulation II-2/3.9 footnote will not interfere with services essential for safety in any other such zone. This requirement will be met if main and emergency feeders passing through any such zone are separated both vertically and horizontally as widely as is practicable.

    Reference: imo.org




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